TAFA: The Textile and Fiber Art List | The Amazing Versatility of Felt: A Peek at Felting Techniques on TAFA

The Amazing Versatility of Felt: A Peek at Felting Techniques on TAFA

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Turkish Shepherd with a felt kepenek, a cape worn to keep him warm.

Turkish Shepherd with a felt kepenek, a cape worn to keep him warm.

The only things I have felted have pretty much been by mistake: sweaters and socks in the washer and dryer. Have you done that? Oops! But, it’s a field of study and practice that fascinates me and if I already didn’t have bins and bins of other supplies, felting would hook me in, for sure. I get to drool over what TAFA members make and find their work inspiring and impressive.

Wool fibers have little scales on them that act like hooks. People figured this out hundreds of years ago and have made use of this property to adorn themselves and their homes with felt. Here is a look at what different fibers look like under a microscope:

Wool and other fibers under a microscope.

Wool and other fibers under a microscope.

When you pound those wool fibers together, they grab on to each other, creating felt, which is not woven or knit or crocheted or held together in any other way besides sticking to the scaly hooks next to each other. This means that it can be cut with no fraying and will hold its shape in sculptural form. The possibilities are endless!

Of course, the pounding part of it is a lot of work…. 🙂

Watch this video of Mongolian nomads making felt for their yurts:

A lot of work, right? It takes a village and a song or two…  Their coats are also made of felt as are many of their rugs, wall coverings, hats, boots, bags and so on.

Let’s look at some of the felting techniques our TAFA artists are using. As I said, I am not a felter and even though I see it on a daily basis, don’t feel super confident about terms and tools, so bear with me if I make a mistake and speak up in the comments.

Click on the images to visit their profiles on TAFA.

Washing Machine

My method! It has to do with heat, soap, and the repetition of movement back and forth. Apparently the front loading models of washing machines won’t work. You’ll need to have the old fashioned one. This method is called “fulling”. (See Leisa Rich’s comment at the bottom.)

Denise Handwerker of Feltwerker (I love her name!) buys old wool sweaters at thrift stores, felts them, cuts them up and makes new things out of them. Unfortunately for Denise, I’ve heard that it’s getting harder and harder to find 100% wool sweaters second hand because all the felters snatch them up.

Feltwerker Recycled Felt Pillow

Feltwerker Recycled Felt Pillow


Wet Felting

Like with the washing machine method, the key is water, soap and movement. One way to do it is to lay fibers down, wet it, soap it up, cover with bubble wrap, roll it up, and lay your weight on it, going back and forth, back and forth. You can keep opening it up and adding more elements and then wrapping it up again and roll, roll, roll. Most of the felting techniques scream “Carpal tunnel!!!” to me, as repetition is key. Careful how you use your bod and wrists…

Fortunately, Robbin and Harry Firth of HeartFelt Silks came up with a tool that really helps with this process: the Palm Washboard! The teeth in the washboard helps move the soap and water around, applies pressure, and you can eliminate a lot of the rolling and rolling. It’s still a lot of work, but it looks fun, too! Check it out:

Wet felting allows you to create flat fabrics that have body and texture. Most often, they are thick and provide warmth. The flat sections can be joined together by creating flaps and using friction to “glue” them together, allowing vessels and three dimensional shapes to grow from that flat starting point. Ariane Mariane is probably our most experimental artist moving from form to function with abandon. It’s been quite the trip to see her evolve over the years and I can only wonder what will come next! Her signature product was a vest that could be worn inside out and upside down, creating many different looks from one piece. Right now she is on a tiny hat kick, one cuter than the other. But, my favorites are her sculptural pieces, often cartoonish characters with a sense of humor:

Ariane Mariane Felt Bird and House

Ariane Mariane Felt Bird and House


There are so many great felt artists on TAFA! So hard to pick who to show….  But, here are a couple more examples of wet felting. As you can see, the wool can be dyed in vibrant colors and you can stitch and quilt into it to create extra textures.

Atelier Iona Loyola Green Felt Scarf

Atelier Iona Loyola Green Felt Scarf


Feuer und Wasser Felt Scarf

Feuer und Wasser Felt Scarf


Feuer und Wasser‘s work also tends toward vibrant colors, but I liked it that this one showed a guy wearing a neck warmer. Be bold, ye modern men! You can have fun with what you wear, too!

Nuno Felt

Nuno felt is a lot like regular wet felting and all of the artists above use it as well. Actually, I believe that Atelier Iona Loyola’s scarf is a nuno felt one. This process adds other thin fabrics into the mix, normally silk. When the wool and silk are rubbed together, the wool fibers will penetrate the silk and stick to it. This is such a luxurious addition to wool as it can take away the itchiness or roughness that raw wool might have for some people. Rarely does someone come up with something “new” these days, yet nuno felting is credited to artist Polly Stirling who came up with it in the early 1990’s.

Adding silk lightens the fabric, while still allowing it to retain warmth and body. Here is a jacket by Jacki Sleator using the nuno felt technique:

Jacki Sleator Nuno Felt Jacket

Jacki Sleator Nuno Felt Jacket

Needle Felting

This is where felt artists go bonkers! This process does not involve water, but it does involve working wool fibers with repetitive motions. The super basic approach is to poke it with a stick, shoving the fibers into each other until they stick and get compressed. You have to do it a gazillion times to make it grow and take shape.

Many of our TAFA needle felters also like to make animals. They are so wonderful! Daria Lvovsky’s (Art of Felting) work is breath taking as she captures so much expression and realism in her subjects.

Art of Felting Needle Felted Vulture

Art of Felting Needle Felted Vulture

A few more favorites, showing how versatile needle felting can be:

Bear Creek Felting

Bear Creek Felting

Stacy Polson - The Old Man in the Teapot

Stacy Polson – The Old Man in the Teapot


Pencil and Sheep- Siggy

Pencil and Sheep- Siggy

I find each one exceptional! Oh, and no….  most of these artists are not poking the fiber with one needle like the video artist. There are all kinds of tools now that have big long sharp teeth and even machines that can speed things up a lot. There are only so many hours in a day, right?

Shana Kohnstamm pushes form and function even further. She has been interested in how to make her felt work marry with electronics, perhaps creating sounds or lighting up:

Shana Kohnstamm Pod Light

Shana Kohnstamm Pod Light


Commercial Felts

Most of us were introduced to felt as children, perhaps in pre-school, where we learned how to cut, glue and stitch. Not everybody wants to start from scratch with felt and there are many great sources out there that sell felt that is ready to go. They come in many grades, thicknesses and there are plenty of green companies selling compassionate wool products. The shearing of sheep can be quite gruesome in the bigger operations, so try to support the smaller operations who call their sheep by name.

Manipulation of commercial felt with stitching and needle felting:



Manitoba Gifts Pin Cushions

Manitoba Gifts Pin Cushions


Well, that’s it! There is so much more, but from here, you will have to go and explore. Do some keyword searches in our navigation bar and see what you find there. About half of our members have shops on Etsy and we have a destination there: type TAFA into Etsy’s search bar. You can add key words, so here what you will find there for TAFA Felt on Etsy.

And, remember, the next time you shrink that sweater in your washing machine, think of all the things you can do with that felt!

Enjoy and be inspired! If you are a felter, kudos to you! 


  • Textile Artist

    Laura Lee Burch is an American artist and author living in Israel. Her current passion lies in needle felting animals and people with humor and sometimes, a message. She welcomes special commissions of her work.

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  • Fair Trade

    HoonArts is a Fair Trade effort representing hand-crafted gifts and accessories from Tajikistan and other Central Asian Silk Road countries.

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  • Artist, Supplies

    Based in Sacramento, California (USA) Barbetta Lockart Contemporary Art – ITSA Studio showcase mixed media art by Barbetta and a rich assortment of supplies from around the world. ITSA Studio has a large selection of ethnic and tribal beads and textiles.

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  • School, Workshops

    The Pacific Northwest Art School offers workshops and classes in Fiber Arts, Mixed Media, Painting, and Photography. Whidbey Island, Washington, USA.

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  • Marketing

    Folt Bolt is Kriszta Kemény’s exceptional effort at promoting artists and the handmade community. She runs curated collections on her website and has developed an active and successful community through her Facebook page.

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I've been working with the arts and craft world in many capacities since 1988. Handmade textiles have been my core focus since launching TAFA in 2010.

My hope is to contribute to the economic development potential the arts bring to the world, along with the intrinsic beauty shown in the work. May the world become a friendlier place for artists and nature!

Arrived in Kentucky after a childhood in Brazil, college in Minnesota and 20 years in Chicago. It's been a ride!


on The Amazing Versatility of Felt: A Peek at Felting Techniques on TAFA.
  1. |

    Great post! I think it would more great if you had included my wool felted slippers, thus showing that it is possible to make the seamless footwear with wool.

    • |

      It’s not possible to include everyone, Dovile, but feel free to leave your links in the comment area.

  2. |

    Do you know who the owner of the micrograph of the comparison of fibers you used at the beginning of this post? I’d like to use it for a post of my own and can find no provenance or rights anywhere, yet it’s used often on the internet.

    Thank you.

    • |

      I did a search for it, too, and it was all over the place. I think it was also on a wikipedia article. It’s been a while, but I try to give credit to images that I use, if I can find them. I have the image linked to the original article where I found it in a search for fibers.

  3. |

    Yes, a very interesting article, thank you.

    Have to say I disagree with the comment that it won’t work if you use a front loading washing machine for felting, or fulling, whatever you want to call it. Check out the butterfly jacket on my web page and you’ll see why! In my experience a lot of it is down to experimenting with the settings used for temperature and level of agitation eg pretend it’s dirty cotton sports kit you’re washing and not a gentler programme for synthetic fabric. That said, you don’t want to over-felt as you can end up with something solid and rigid, although that might be great for making some place mats or a bag. Sometimes you need to add other items in with the fabric you’re felting to assist the process – towels of a similar colour (or old ones that don’t matter what colour they come out) can help, or maybe some of those ‘wash balls’ that you use to help get the dirt out of your washing.

    I knitted the fabric for the butterfly jacket from scratch on a knitting machine, and it came out fine from the washing machine first time around, but then it was a 3 ply lambswool and based on experience I could tell by just touching the fabric produced that it was likely to work. The additional effects you can get from using patterned knitting (fair isle/double bed/intarsia), especially if you use a mixture of yarn that will felt with some that won’t in the same pieces, can be fabulous!

    So I say give it a go with the washing machine if you get the chance, experiment and play, you never know what interesting fabric you might end up with! 🙂

    • |

      Interesting…. Thank you, Judith! Your jacket is wonderful. One thing I am curious about is how you figure out the shrinkage when you knit or crochet something with intention of fulling. Is there a formula you guys use?

  4. |

    Thanks for including my lighted pods*, Rachel! This is a sweet collection of felting artists and wonderful explanations.

    *Pods were wet-felted, needle-felted, carved, blocked and stiffened.

  5. |

    This was a lovely post, and so informative. I really enjoyed the overview! Just one clarification that I learned recently from pro felter Andrea Graham- when you throw previously knit garments, etc. into water and a dryer to shrink and puff them up it is called Fulling, NOT felting. Fulling has an interesting history and has quite a resurgence now!

  6. |

    Love your article – also something I would love to do more of – done a bit and loved every minute of it – very addictive. Oh to have more hours in a day! Thank you for sharing and I will share it.

  7. |

    Brilliant overview – love this complete explanation about felt and will share! Thank you, Rachel

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